Mechanical tests are defined as the relationship between forces (or stresses) acting on a material and the material’s resistance to deformation and fracture. Various types of tests that involve an applied force are used to measure the material’s characteristics, such as elastic module, production stress, elastic deformation, fatigue strength, and hardness.
Mechanical features depend on the material’s micro-structure (grain size, phase distribution, etc.), type of crystal structure (i.e. atom distribution), and chemical composition (contents of different elements).